PLANT PATHOLOGY MODULE
Impact of plant diseases on the society, on human and animal health, on the environment. Symptomatology; diagnostic metods and tools. Infection process: recognition, penetration, colonisation. Plant resistance to pathogens: mechanisms and examples; basic concepts of physiopathology. Fundamentals of epidemiology and forecasting models; plant pathogen dispersal and survival; assessment of economic damage caused by plant diseases. Principles of plant disease management; evolution of plant protection approaches; agronomical, physical, chemical and biological plant protection methods; quarantine pathogens and quarantine measures; main classes of fungicides and their mechanism of action; fungicide resistance, mechanisms and prevention strategies; formulation of plant disease control means; factors influencing the efficacy of treatments; biological control: antagonists and their mechanism of action; R&D of biological control agents: from lab to field.
GENERAL AGRICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY MODULE
The Insects: origin, general organization and relationships with other Arthropods, the main orders of insects.
Morphology (integument and endoskeleton, head-capsule, thorax, abdomen, mouthparts, appendages). The mouthparts and their modifications in the different orders. The thorax and its appendages. The adaptive modifications of the legs and the wings. The abdomen and its appendages and processes. External genitalia.
Anatomy (muscular system, nervous system, sense organs, alimentary canal, circulatory system, respiratory system, excretory organs, organs of secretion, reproductive system. Embryogenesis. Postembryonic development. Metamorphosis types. Larval and pupal types. The adult insect (sexual dimorphism, polymorphism, gynandromorphism, light and sound production). Insect aggregation. Social insects.
Life cycles, biotic potential and environment. Insect populations: numerical changes, influence of abiotic and biotic factors on insect population abundance. Principles and methods of pest management.