Introduction to ecology. historical elements.
Concept of ecosystem; the ecosystems structure. Classification of ecosystems.
Forms of energy, laws of thermodynamics, solar radiation and light distribution, photosynthesis, productivity and methods of measurement, distribution of productivity, energy subsidiary. Decomposition and overall budget production-decomposition.
Trophic chains and food webs, trophic levels, trophic structure and ecological pyramids; ecological efficiency; flow of energy and universal patterns of energy flow.
Models and basic types of biogeochemical cycles, quantitative aspects of the cycles; Gaseous cycles and sedimentary cycles; carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and water cycles. Implications with human activities.
Concept of limiting factor: the law of the minimum and corollaries, the law of tolerance and corollaries. Classification of factors. Listing of abiotic and biotic factors; periodicity of factors. Elements of climate.
Biological Communities: concept and recognition, description and structure, richness and diversity of species, communities in the geographical gradients, ecotones.
Strategy of community development, types of succession and mechanisms, the concept of climax, the disruption in communities, complexity and stability of communities.
Biogeography of islands and balance theories, evolution and island communities.
Biodiversity and forest plant species: analysis and conservation. Trees architecture, life forms, growth, root systems, monumental trees. Vegetation. Systematics, morphology, ecophysiology, corology of the main families, and particularly of Taxaceae, Pinaceae, Cupressaceae s.l., Fagaceae, Salicaceae, Myrtaceae, Fabaceae s.l.