Bioclimatology: adaptations to climatic factors (drought, temperature, solar radiation), bioclimatic indexes, climatics diagrams, bioclimatic classifications, Italian phytoclimates. Elaboration of biological and chorological spectra of floras. Demography: plant life-cicle, reproduction and dispersal. Community ecology: sampling and analysis methods. Actual and potential vegetation. Vegetation maps. Succession: fluctuation and succession, primary and secondary successions. Diversity: levels of diversity.