The carbon chemistry:
Generality of atom and bonds;
Hybridization of the orbitals;
Carbon atom characteristics;
General information on functional groups;
Reactivity of organic compounds;
Aroma and flavor compounds of biological interest;
Isomerism: various types of isomerism;
hydroxyl group: alcohols, phenols, polyols;
sulphydryl group: Thioalcohols and thiophenols;
carbonyl group: aldehydes and ketones;
carboxyl group: acids, hydroxy acids and keto acids;
Derivatives of carboxylic acids, esters, amides and nitriles;
amino group: amines
Metabolism general concepts: energy in biological systems and role of ATP, coupled reactions; metabolic pathways.
Catalysis and control of biochemical reactions: enzymes, enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, coenzymes and vitamins.
The central energy way: the citric acid cycle, electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.
Carbohydrate metabolism: glycolysis, yield of respiration, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and carbohydrate storage.
Lipid metabolism: Use and transport of fats and cholesterol, Oxidation and biosynthesis of fatty acids, triacylglycerol biosynthesis, cholesterol biosynthesis, ketone bodies, biosynthesis of volatile fatty acids in the rumen.
Amino acid metabolism: digestion of proteins; aminotransferase and transport of the amino group to the liver; production and excretion of urea, catabolism of the carbon skeleton of amino acids.
Signal transduction and metabolic regulation.
DNA structure: Three-dimensional model of the double helix, denaturation, hybridization, DNA-protein interaction, Mechanism of replication and involved enzymes, Telomeres and telomerase.
Versatility of RNA: Modified bases, Three-dimensional conformations of single stranded RNA, Classes of RNA.
The genetic information: The genetic code, Transcription, RNA Polymerase, Promoter sequences, Initiation, elongation and termination of transcription, The Lac operon,
The processes of RNA modification: Eukaryotic mRNA maturation, Splicing mechanisms,
Protein synthesis: RNA activation, The ribosome, The mechanism of protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eucariotes.
Nucleic acids technology: Restriction enzimes, The Printciple of PCR.