Structure and specializations of the cell membrane, exo- and endocytosis. Endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes. Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes. Cytoskeleton. Mitochondria. Nucleus. Chromosomes. The karyotype. Nucleolus. Nucleic acids and mechanisms of transcription and translation. Epithelial tissues. Connective tissues. Cartilage. Bone. tissue. Osteogenesis. Blood. Lymphatic tissue. Nervous tissue. Synapses. Muscle and the mechanism of contraction.