Introduction to the study of microbiology. The micro-organisms: generality. Prokariotes vs eukaryotes. Cut, shape and general organization of the bacteria. The surface structures of the bacterial cell: cytoplasmic membrane; bacterial wall of gram negative and gram positive; wall of acid-resistant alcohol bacteria. Internal structures: cytoplasm, nucleoid, plasmids and transposons, ribosomes, endospores. Structures outside the bacterial wall: Capsule, glycocalyx, flagella, pili and fimbriae. Binary splitting and horizontal transfer of genetic information: transformation, conjugation, narrow and generalized phage transduction, phage conversion. Pathogenicity factors of bacteria. Factors that promote host colonization: motility, adhesion, invasion, competition for iron and other nutrients. Factors that promote the evasion of innate and adaptive immune responses. Virulence factors that cause damage to the host: ability to induce the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, endotoxins and bacterial exotoxins.
Antibiotics and chemotherapeutics. Direct and indirect diagnostic methods: isolation of bacteria of veterinary interest, cultural characteristics, dyeing characteristics, biochemical tests, serological tests, immunofluorescence, ELISA, molecular diagnosis of bacterial infections.General characteristics of viruses. Size and shape of viruses. Structure of viruses. Classification criteria for viruses. Viroids and prions. Lifecycle of viruses of veterinary interest. Oncogenic viruses. Lysing cycle and lysogenic cycle of bacteriophages. Pathogenicity of animal viruses. Antivirals. Types of viral infection. Virus isolation, cytopathic effect. Direct and indirect virological diagnosis methods: PCR, ELISA, Immunofluorescence.