Elements of plant citology. Membranes, nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, cytoskeleton. Cell wall and its modifications. Plasmodesmata. Plastids. Vacuole.
Primary and secondary meristems. Parenchymatic, tegumental, mechanical, conductive and secretory tissues.
Primary and secondary structure of stems and roots with their modifications. Structure and modifications of leaves.
Reproduction of plants and the biological cycle.
Elements of bioenergetics. Chemical and electrochemical potential. Light and the activity of photosynthetic pigments. Photosynthetic transport of electrons and Photophosphorylation. Calvin cycle. Photorespiration. Plants C4 and CAM. Translocation of organic compounds.
Physical and chemical properties of water. Water potential and water trasport in plants.
Plant ormones: auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid. Brassinosteroids.
Phytochromes and their major roles.
Use of optical microscopes. Preparation of plant explants suitable for examination by microscopy. Observation of characteristic features of plant cells: vacuoles, chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts. Observation of leaf epidermal tissues and plant tissues in sections of stems, roots and leaves.