RENAL PHYSIOLOGY. Evolution of kidney function. Kidney swab mechanisms and acid-base equilibrium. Adjustment of osmotic pressure and extracellular fluid volume.
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR APPARATUS. Function. Comparative physiology of cardiovascular system: open, simple, double and incomplete circulation, double and complete. Circle physiology. The big circle: blood distribution, cross-section blood vessels, blood flow velocity. Emodynamic readings: Poiseulle, Reynolds, Bernoulli and Laplace. Flow in the arteries, veins and capillaries. Arterial pulse and arterial pressure. The vasomotor tone and its nervous and humoral regulation. The pulmonary circulation. Cardionatrine (ANF).
BLOOD. Blood physiology: generality and hematocrit. Red blood cell physiology: membrane, erythropoiesis and senescence. Blood group and Rh. Haemoglobinopathies
ENDOCRINOLOGY. Internal secretion glands and hormones. Function, chemistry, metabolism and mechanism of action of hormones. Adjustment for feedback. Physiology of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis: adeno-phosaric hormones and hypothalamic release factors. Neuropeptide Hormones: ADH and Oxytocin. Thyroid: The chemistry, function and mechanism of action of thyroid hormones; thyroid pathophysiology, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Physiological effects and mechanism of action of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones and basal, protein, glucidic, lipidic, hydro-saline metabolism. Thyroid hormones and cardio-circulatory system. Thyroid hormones and central nervous system. Thyroid hormones and muscle. Thyroid hormones and bone tissue. Thyroid hormones and somatic development. Hypophysis and pituitary hormones. Physiopathology of parathyroids: chemistry, biological actions, mechanism of action, regulation of paratormone secretion. Hypo and hyperparathyroidism.
Space physiology: effect of microgravity on muscle, bone, cardiovascular and immune systems; tools for the study of the spatial physiology; isolation and purification of human T lymphocytes and simulation of STIM experiment on the sounding rocket MASER 12. The cosmic radiations.