PHYSIOLOGY OF NUTRITION. Prehension of solid feeds and intake of liquids. Food intake regulation. Chewing. Saliva. Deglutition. Transit in the esophagous. Gastric digestion. Vomit. Digestion in the small intestine. Pancreatic juice. Bile. Absorption processes and motor activity. Digestion in the cecum and colon: absorption processes and motor activity. Digestion in the large intestine of pigs and horses: absorption processes and motor activity.Defecation. Digestion in ruminants. Digestion of cellulose, proteins and lipids in the rumen. Processes of ruminal absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids, protein and non-protein nitrogen, and lipids. Belching. Rumination. Motor activity of the forestomach and abomasum. Digestion in newborns. Functions of the liver.Plastic and energetic destination of nutrients during lactation, dry-off and pregnancy periods. Feeding behavior: Factors regulating feed ingestion. Diets rich in concentrates: ruminal acidosis, ketosis.Ammonia toxicity, nitrate and oxalic acid toxicity. Meteorism. Physiology of nutrition under feeding stress. Digestion in poultry and in fish species. ENDOCRINOLOGY. General characteristics and mode of action of hormones. Regulation of hormonal secretion. Hormones of hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, endocrine pancreas, gonads, epiphysis and thymus. Prostaglandins. PHYSIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION. Puberty. Male and female sexual behavior. Estrous cycle. Natural mating. Pregnancy. Delivery and parenting behavior. Factors affecting reproductive cycles: feeding, photoperiod, temperature, pheromones, sound and visual stimuli, physical contact and reproductive senescence. PHYSIOLOGY OF LACTATION. Growth of the mammary gland. Synthesis and composition of milk and colostrum. Collection and ejection of the milk. Involution and dry-off of the mammary gland. Physiological, dietary and environmental factors influencing lactation.