Elements of plant cytology. Membranes, nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, cytoskeleton. Cell wall and its modifications. Plasmodesmata. Plastids. Vacuole.
Plant histology. Primary and secondary meristems. Parenchymatic, tegumental, mechanical, conductive and secretory tissues.
Plant anatomy. Primary and secondary structure of stems, leaves and roots with their modifications.
Elements of bioenergetics. Chemical and electrochemical potential. Light and the activity of photosynthetic pigments. Photosynthetic transport of electrons and Photophosphorylation. Calvin cycle. Photorespiration. Plants C4 and CAM. Translocation of organic compounds.
Physical and chemical properties of water. Water potential and water transport in plants.
The international standards for the nomenclature of spontaneous and cultivated taxa. Gymnosperms (Cycads, Ginkgo, conifers, gnetophytes), Asteraceae (Compositae), Leguminosae, Poaceae (Gramineae), Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), Solanaceae, Oleaceae.
Plan Diversity, Biological Diversity, Flora, plant life forms, Biogeography (basic concepts), Vegetation (basic concepts).