The cellular organization: the cell of the prokaryotes and of the eukaryotes.
The cellular compartments: the nucleus and nuclear envelope; the endoplasmic reticulum; the Golgi apparatus; the lysosomes; the mitochondrion; the cytoskeletron.
The cellular membranes: their contents and their properties; the transport systems.
The glycolysis and the cellular respiration.
The genetic material: the discovery of DNA: the experiments of Griffith and of Avery et al.
The components of DNA, the Watson and Crick model. The semiconservative replication of DNA. The experiment of Meselson and Stahl.
Transcription and Translation. The RNAs: rRNA, tRNA, mRNA and its process of splicing. The genetic code. The protein synthesis.
The genome organization and the morphology of chromosomes. Mitosis and Meiosis.
Mendel’s experiments. The dominance, the segregation, the independent assortment.
The linkage. The recombination of linked genes.
Multiple alleles. Gene interaction. Inheritance of the sex.
Genes, chromosome and genomic mutations.
Molecular markers. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genetically modified crops.