Thermodynamics fundamentals ( 2 hours)
Thermodynamics and energy. Physical entities and units. Open and closed systems. Thermodynamic system properties. Transformation and thermodynamics cycles. Temperature and Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics.
Pure substances properties ( 4 hours)
The pure substances. The phases of a pure substance. Undercooled and saturated liquid. Saturated and superheated steam. The state diagrams for the changing phase transformation. Equation of state and Perfect Gas Law. The deviations from Perfect Gas behaviour. The compressibility factor.
First Law of Thermodynamics for closed systems ( 6 hours)
Formulation. Physical meaning of internal energy. The First Law as an energy balance. Enthalpy. Work. Specific heat and thermal capacity. Particular transformations in closed systems. The principle of mass conservation. The mass and flow rate. The principle of energy conservation. The heat exchangers.
Second Law of Thermodynamics for closed systems ( 4 hours)
Introduction. Reversible and irreversible transformations. The Carnot cycle – Efficiency. The thermodynamic scale of temperature. The Clausius inequality. Entropy .The entropy plane.
Mass Transfer (4 hours)
Diffusion. The Fick Laws. Steady State diffusion through the solids. Mass Transfer. Mass Transfer coefficients. Mass transfer in transient conditions.
Fluid flow in food processing (6 ore)
The liquids properties ( pressure, viscosity, density). The not Newtonian liquids properties. Handling systems for Newtonian liquids. Reynolds number. Laminar and turbulent flow. The continuity equation. Velocity profiles and friction forces. The Bernoulli equation. Transport systems for the liquids. The pumps selection.
Exercises (8 hours)
Make the energy and mass balances. Make calculations for the food processing. Make calculation for the evaporators
Guided Tours: ( 6 hours)