Elements of plant citology. Membranes, nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, cytoskeleton. Cell wall and its modifications. Plasmodesmata. Plastids. Vacuole.
Primary and secondary meristems. Parenchymatic, tegumental, mechanical, conductive and secretory tissues.
Primary and secondary structure of stems and roots with their modifications. Structure and modifications of leaves.
Elements of bioenergetics. Chemical and electrochemical potential. Light and the activity of photosynthetic pigments. Photosynthetic transport of electrons and Photophosphorylation. Calvin cycle. Photorespiration. Plants C4 and CAM. Translocation of organic compounds.
Physical and chemical properties of water. Water potential and water trasport in plants.
Use of optical microscopes. Preparation of plant explants for examination by microscopy. Observation of characteristic features of plant cells: vacuoles, chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts. Observation of leaf epidermal tissues and plant tissues in sections of stems, roots and leaves.
Systematic for studying plant biodiversity. Origin and evolution of the systematic and taxonomic systems. Nomenclature.
Phylogeny of plants. Life in water. Conquest of land.
General morphology, reproduction, ecology, cycle of Bryophytes and Pteridophytes.
Gymnosperms: general characteristics, morphology, reproduction, cycle, systematic analysis of living groups.
Angiosperms: general characteristics. Evolution of vegetative structures; sexual reproduction: the flower and the fruit. Cycle. Overview of the main families.
Observation and description of fresh material from spermatophytes. Morphology of the vegetative apparatus Flower, inflorescence and fruit. Introduction to the preparation of the herbarium. Use of dichotomous keys. Determination at the level of family, genus and species