Bioclimatology: Adaptations to climate (water, temperature, solar radiation), bioclimatic indexes, climatic diagrams, bioclimatic classifications, Italian phytoclimates. Biologic and chorologic spectra.Phytogeography: phytogeographyc classification systems (Takhtajan, Rivas Martìnez), island biogeography. Demography: life cycle, reproduction and dispersal. Community: sampling and analysis methods. Real and potential vegetation. Vegetation maps. Successions: fluctuations and successions, primary and secondary successions. Diversity: levels of diversity.