General characteristics of the bacterial cell: Main differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Structure and function of the constituents of the bacterial cell. Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Biofilms. The spore. Bacterial growth. DNA replication mechanisms. Plasmids and transposons. Gene recombination, transduction, conjugation, transformation. Mutations.
Host-parasite relationships: Symbiotic associations. The human microbiota. Pathogenicity and virulence. Main pathways of infection, adhesion, colonization, invasion. Exotoxins and endotoxins. Interaction with the effectors of the host''s immune response. Mechanisms of escape from the host''s immune defenses.
Antibacterial drugs: general features. Mechanisms of action and molecular targets of the main classes of antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistance.
Virus: General characteristics of viruses. Classification and structure of viruses. Bacteriophages. Viral replication. Replication of viruses, latency and persistence.
Mycetes: General characteristics of mycetes responsible for human infection. Structure and replication of fungi and yeasts. Mechanism of the pathogenic action of the Mycetes. Different types of mycosis.
Protozoa and helminths: General characters of the main parasites of medical interest. Classification and structure of protozoa and helminths. Mechanisms of pathogenic action and host-parasite interactions.
Main micro-organisms of medical interest:
General characteristics, transmission modalities, pathogenetic mechanisms, associated clinical syndromes and diagnosis of:
staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, mycobacteria, enterobacteria, neisseria, Pseudomonas, vibrions, yersinias, clostridia, chlamydia, mycoplasmas.
HIV, herpes virus, hepatitis virus, influenza virus, HPV.
Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus.
Plasmodium spp., Giardia intestinalis, Toxoplasma gondii, intestinal amoebae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Taenia spp., Echinococcus granulosus, Schistosoma spp., Enterobius vermicularis.
Microbiology of the oral cavity
Oral microbiological ecosystem. Characteristics of oral streptococci. Dental plaque: microbial plaque composition, biochemical properties of plaque bacteria, their interaction and pathogenic potential. Etiology, pathogenesis and immunity of caries and parodontopathies.
Diagnosis of microbial infections
Direct and indirect diagnosis. The clinical sample, collection and transport. Microscopic examination. Media for cultivation, isolation and identification of microorganisms. Immunological techniques for direct and indirect diagnosis. Molecular diagnostics, PCR.