The exam is only written and it is the same for attending and non-attending students. The contents refer to the textbook and the material made available on the course website (teaching notes, lectures and slides), in addition to the evidence from the guest speakers, which is an integral part of the course. There is only one final written exam at the end of the course and no partial exams in the middle and at the end of the course. The written exam is made up of open answer: the student will chose 3 out of 4 questions (each with detailed subquestions). Students must answer to all the subquestions of the choosen questions. For istance: there are questions A, B, C, D and student X will choose questions A, B, C while student Y can chose questions A, C, D. Student X will have to compulsory answer to all subquestions A.1, A.2, A.3; B.1, B.2, B3; C.1, C.2, C3. While student Y will have to answer to all subquestions A.1, A.2, A.3; C.1, C.2, C.3 and D.1, D2, D3. Time for the exam is 120 minutes. The final grade is the arimetical average of the grade for each single question (maximum grade for each question A, B, C, D is 30; and the final grade, for best students, is (30+30+30)/3; the maximum grade for each subquestion is 10.