Embryology. Gametogenesis: spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Mitosis and meiosis. Ovulation, fertilization, segmentation and formation of the morula and blastocyst. Formation of the bilaminar and trilaminar germ disk. Origin and formation of the mesoderm and notochord. The ectoderm and its main derivatives. The endoderm and its main derivatives. The mesoderm and its main derivatives. Placenta and fetal membranes: chorion, amnion, allantois, yolk sac, umbilical cord. Structure, function and classification of placentas.
Cytology and Histology. Structure and specializations of the cell membrane, exo- and endocytosis. Endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes. Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes. Cytoskeleton. Mitochondria. Nucleus. Chromosomes. The karyotype. Nucleolus. Nucleic acids and mechanisms of transcription and translation. Epithelial tissues. Connective tissues. Cartilage. Bone. tissue. Osteogenesis. Blood. Lymphatic tissue. Nervous tissue. Synapses. Muscle and the mechanism of contraction.
Anatomy 1. Osteology: morphological features of bones. Recognition of t bones and identification of animal species. Arthrology: morphological and functional classification of joints. Synartrosis, amphiarthrosis and diarthrosis. Myology: general features of muscles: shape, number, location.