The experimental scientific method: observations and hypotheses. Physics, chemistry and matter, physical phenomena and chemical phenomena. Basic concepts on measures. Extensive and intensive sizes. SI unit of measurement
Basic atomic theories: Dalton's theory. The atom subdivided into nucleus + electrons. The concept of electric charge and positive or negative ion formation. Molecular formulas. Classification of chemical reactions: synthesis, decomposition, exchange and double exchange. Reagents and products; Quantitative laws: the law of mass conservation and the role of balancing a chemical reaction.
Quantitative laws of chemistry, atomic mass unit and isotopes
The size and molecular weight. The Avogadro number. Exercises on relative weights and absolute weights. Introduction to quantitative calculations. Principles of stoichiometry. From grams to moles and from moles to grams: weight ratios. Stoichiometric ratios in multi-stage reactions. Limiting reagent. Yield of a reaction.
States of matter and changes of state. Definition of specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure. The latent heat. The vapor pressure. Evaporation and boiling. Melting - solidification curves, evaporation - condensation and sublimation - brining. Points bivarian, single and triple points.
The gaseous state:
ideal gas model and state variables. Ideal gas law: Boyle's law and the two laws of Gay-Lussac. The existence of absolute temperature and absolute zero.
The liquid state:
Characteristics of liquids. Solvation and solution formation. Polarity differences: differences between water / benzene and water / ethanol solutions. Miscibility. The concentration of solutions, how to express the concentrations: the molarity and the molality. Density.
The equilibrium reactions. Overview of kinetics and activation energy. The equilibria in solution (aqueous). The equilibrium constant.
Acids and bases in solution:
The Arrhènius acid-base theory and the Bronsted theory. The conjugated acid-base pairs. Acids and bases in water. Water as an amphoteric reagent (both base and acid) and self-protection balance. Ionic product of water. PH and pOH.
Basic acid balances:
Strong acids and bases. Weak acids and bases: the dissociation constant.
Hydrolysis in solution
The solutions of salts in water.