Amino acid catabolism: dietary protein degradation. Intracellular protein degradation. Metabolic fates of amino groups in mammals. Transport forms of ammonia. Nitrogen excretion and the urea cycle. Metabolic fate of carbon skeletons. Lipid anabolism: biosynthesis of fatty acids. Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols and glycerophospholipids. Triacylglycerol cycle. Glyceroneogenesis. Biosynthesis of cholesterol. Metabolic specialization of organs. Biosignaling: specificity, amplification, desensitization, integration. Classification of chemical messengers. Molecular mechanisms of signal transduction. Gated ion channels. Receptor enzymes. G protein-coupled receptors and second messengers. Hormonal regulation and integration of energy metabolism in mammals. Pancreatic secretion of insulin. Regulation between pancreatic α and β cells. Insulin signaling. Effects of insulin on glucose and lipid metabolism. Effects of glucagon and adrenaline on glucose and lipid metabolism. Interrelationships and metabolic adaptations in the major physiological states (feeding, fasting, muscle mechanical work). Metabolic homeostasis: energy metabolism and appetite control. Leptin/insulin additive role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Leptin signaling defects: metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic changes in diabetes. Role of oral hypoglycemic agents in the management of type 2 diabetes. Sensory transduction in vision, olfaction, gustation and hearing. Molecular analysis in the diagnosis and study of some genetic diseases (nucleotide sequencing, RFLP-PCR, ARMS-PCR, GAP-PCR, MLPA). Laboratory activities: from DNA extraction to the realization of the nucleotide sequence.