- Atomic Structure and Stoichiometry
Atoms and Elements.
Isotopes of an element.
The atomic weight scale.
The concept of a mole.
Molecular formulas and molecular weights. Making use of a molecular formula.
The significance of balanced chemical equations.
The limiting reagent and the yield of product.
- Properties of dilute solutions.
Concentration units for solutions: the molarity,the molality, the mole fraction, weight percentage.
- From the hydrogen atom to poly-electronic atoms
Atomic emission spectra, the emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen.
The Bohr theory and the introduction to quantum concept. From Bohr's quantum theory to wave mechanics.
Atomic orbitals and the quantum numbers n, l, m. The spin quantum number and the Pauli exclusion principle. The Aufbau process and the periodic table. The periodic properties: the ionization energy, the electron affinity, the electronegativity.
- The nature of the chemical bond
Ionic versus covalent bonding. Lewis structures. Sigma and pi greco molecular bonding.
Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory.
Oxidation states and oxidation-reduction reactions.
- Inorganic Nomenclature.
- Introduction to the low of chemical equilibrium.
Le Chatelier's principle.
Acids, bases and salts. The ion product of water and the pH scale. Weak acids and bases. Conjugate acids and bases and their relative strengths. Weak polyprotic acids. Acidic, basic, and neutral salts. Buffer solutions.