Contents: Introduction to Physics: the physical quantities, the units of measurement, the International System, the measuring instruments, scalar and vector quantities, sum and subtraction of vectors.
Dynamics: the forces, the composition of forces, the laws of dynamics, friction, force of gravity, mass and weight, elastic force, Hooke''s law, Young''s form, considerations on the elasticity of bones, muscles and biological tissues. Balance of the material point and of the rigid body, the levers, the levers in biology. Complements of mechanics: work and energy, kinetic energy and potential, principle of conservation of mechanical energy. Calorimetry: heat, propagation and transmission of heat, unit of measurement of heat, effects of heat. The temperature, unit of measurement, the thermometric scales, thermal expansion and thermal equilibrium. The fundamental law of calorimetry, thermal capacity and specific heat. Food energy: nutrients, basal metabolic rate energy, maintenance and additional needs, calorie, energy value of food principles, thermal neutrality and thermoregulation.
gases: perfect gases and relative laws, hints on the kinetic theory of gases, absolute temperature, equation of state of perfect gases, real gases and the Van der Waals equation. Gaseous composition of the atmosphere, gaseous mixtures, Dalton''s law, solubility of a gas in a liquid and Henry''s law. Respiration, gaseous exchanges in tissues and alveoli.
Fluid mechanics: pressure, Pascal principle, Archimedes principle, Stevino law, atmospheric pressure, pressure measurement unit, medical applications: measurement of blood pressure and hydrostatic blood pressure. The continuity equation and applications to the bloodstream. The Bernoulli equation, the motion of a real fluid, friction and viscosity, laminar and turbulent regime, Poiseuille''s law, Stokes''s law. Applications to the circulatory system.
The physical states of matter, the changes in state, thermal stops and latent heat, pressure and changes in state, evaporation and boiling.
Pure substances and mixtures: definitions, homogeneous and heterogeneous system, changes in the state of a mixture, various methods of separation of mixtures. Applications in biology: sedimentation and centrifugation.
Transport mechanisms through membranes: Fick diffusion and law, filtration, osmosis, osmotic flow and osmotic pressure. Maintenance of osmotic balance, isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic solutions, maintenance of osmotic balance and osmoregulation. Flows through the capillaries and the Starling equation.
Surface phenomena: surface tension, wettability of liquids, the Laplace equation. Some surfactants in biology, alveolus instability and role of surfactant. The capillarity.
Electrical phenomena: properties of electric charge, electric force and electric field, electric potential energy and electric potential, electric current and current intensity, first law of Ohm, second law of Ohm and coupling of resistors, electric resistance and hydrodynamics. Membrane potential at rest and action potential, electrical activity of the heart and electrocardiogram.
Hints of acoustics: Waves: general characteristics. Sound waves. sound characteristics, intensity of sound and level of sound intensity, acoustic pressure and acoustic impedance, resonance. Propagation of acoustic waves in the presence of obstacles. Applications of ultrasound in medicine: ultrasound.