Introduction to the course. Carbohydrates, nucleotides, lipids: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, main functions. Proteins: composition, properties of the peptide bond, biological activities; primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures. Protein functions with particular reference to hemoglobin and myoglobin and to enzymes. Biological membranes and transport. Biosignature. Introduction to the metabolism. Principles of bioenergetics. Glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen metabolism and metabolic regulation. Pyruvate oxidation and citric acid cycle. Catabolism of fatty acids. Oxidation of amino acids and production of urea. Oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation. Notes on biosynthesis of carbohydrates in plants, biosynthesis of lipids, amino acids and nucleotides.
The laboratory activity includes topics such as spectrophotometry and some electrophoretic and chromatographic techniques.