1. Topics related to the general characteristics of viruses and phytoplasmas, infectious agents of diseases that can affect various crops and in particular the lives of which will be made a specific description of the main ones present in the wine world and in particular in our region focusing on virosis whose exemption is mandatory in the certified material and those of new indication in the Sardinian viticulture.
2. Macroscopic or field diagnostics with visits to the vineyard allowing direct observation in late spring of symptoms of viral diseases (GFLV, GPGV) and sampling of tissues suitable for the execution of laboratory diagnostic tests (ELISA , RT-PCR, NESTED Latency and recovery phenomena.
3. Epidemiology: problems related to transmission by grafting and by vectors.
4. Practical execution by students of some of the most used diagnostic techniques suitable for an etiological study of pathogens of an infectious character: enzyme immunoenzymatic type ELISA and biomolecular PCR, RT-PCR, Nested-PCR.
5. Implementation of the virus recovery technique of the meristematic explant combined with micropropagation.
6. The process of genetic-health certification.
Adversity of animals
- Rapid references to the main biotic adversities of the vine in Sardinia, to allow even those students who did not take the viticultural entomology examination to know the framework in which the course will take place.
- General information on nematodes: outline of morphology, anatomy and biology. Nematodes of viticultural interest (cycle, damage, fight). Main monitoring, extraction and control techniques.
- General information on mites: outline of morphology, anatomy and biology. Mites of viticultural interest (cycle, damage, fight).
- Particular attention will be paid to the monitoring techniques (direct and indirect) of the following phytophages: Hemiptera Cicadellidae (Jacobiasca libica, Empoasca vitis, Zygina rhamni) and Pseudococcidi (Planococcus ficus), Lepidoptera Tortricidae (Lobesia botrana) and Piralidae (Cryptoblabes gnidiella). Moreover, the techniques of monitoring of soil nematodes will be applied to potential vectors of vine virosis (Xiphinema sp.) And of mites (Tetranichids and Eriofides).
- Preparation of devices for insect monitoring and placement of traps in the field.
- Direct phytophagous sampling techniques and periodic control of the traps and sampling, carried out directly by the students who will thus acquire skills on the recognition of insects in the field.