The discovery of transformation. Griffith, Avery Mc Leod and Mc Charthy, Hersey and Chase experiments.
DNA structure. The B structure of DNA. The linking, twist and writhe numbers. DNA of type B C and Z. The chromosomes: form nucleosomes to the metaphasic chromosome.
DNA replication. The leading and lagging strands, DNA helicases, polymerases, ligases topoisomerases, sliding clamps and telomerases.
DNA maintenance The DNA polymerases makes errors. The proofreading activity of DNA polymerases. Dam methylases and the significance of hemymethilated DNA. DNA damge. Physical and chemical agents. Biological repair mechanisms. The direct repair strategy , the photoliases. Excision repair pathways. Nucleotide repair pathways. Transcription coupled repair in eukariotes. Genomic and chromosome mutations.
Transcription Stages of transcription. Initiation of transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The structure of a minimal promoter.. Elongation and termination. Pre mRNA processing in eukaryotes. The splicing process. Alternative splicing and proteome diversity.
Protein synthesis. The ribosomes, the transfer RNAs. Initiation elongation and termination of translation. The differences between translation initiation in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, The codon Adaptation index. Intragenic codon bias.
Meiosis and Mitosis:Analogies and differences between meiosis and mitosis. Crosiing over and recombination . The cell cycle and the concept of checkpoint.
Mendelian Genetics Theories on heredity before Mendel. First and second Mendel' s laws. Extension of Mendelian Analysis . Segregatio ratio 9;7; 12:3 :1; 9:3:4; 15:1; 13;3.
Genetic maps: Two and three point tests of marker associations. From genetic maps to marker assisted selection.
Population genetics: Hardy Weinberg law. The selection coefficient. Migration, mutation randome genetic drift, inbreeding and selection.
Vitis vinifera breeding.
The molecular markers. The marker assisted selection.
Genetic engineering of vitis and genome editing