PHYSIOLOGY OF BODY LIQUIDS
Body water and water compartments of the organism. osmosis. Water balance. Center of thirst. Ionic composition of body fluids. Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium. Ionic fluxes outline
Structure and functions of the kidney. The nephron. Glomerular ultrafiltration, reabsorption and tubular secretion. Urine formation: mechanism of urine concentration. Regulation of kidney function, antidiuretic hormone. Physiological and pathological constituents of urine. GFR and influencing factors, renal clearance. Renin and erythropoietin.
Physico-chemical characteristics and general functions, blood volume, hematocrit ratio. Erythrocyte senescence. Blood plasma, plasma electrolytes: volume and composition; plasma proteins and electrophoresis; lipids, lipoproteins, atherosclerosis. Leukocytes, platelets and haemostasis: vascular phase, platelet phase, plasma phase and blood coagulation. Processes limiting blood clotting. Fibrinolysis. Hemoglobinopathies. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of cardiomycitis
Muscle physiology. Sarcomere. Molecular mechanism of muscle contraction: myofilaments and the role of calcium ions; troponin-tropomyosin system. Motor plate and neuromuscular transmission. Isometric and isotonic contraction. Role of the elastic component in muscle contraction. Simple shock, sum of shocks, tetanus, fatigue and contracture. Muscle heat. Biochemistry of fatigue.
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Function. Comparative physiology of the cardiovascular system: open, simple, double and incomplete, double and complete circulation. Physiology of the circle. The great circle: blood distribution, cross section of vessels, blood flow velocity. Laws of hemodynamics: Poiseulle, Reynolds, Bernoulli and Laplace. Flow in the arteries, veins and capillaries. Pulse and arterial pressure. The vasomotor tone and its nervous and humoral regulation. The pulmonary circulation. Cardionatrina (ANF).
Functional anatomy. Air environments. Respiratory mechanics. Intrapleural and intrapulmonary pressure. Airflow in the lungs. Dalton's law. Henry's Law. Pulmonary compliance. Respiratory volumes and capacities. surfactant. Pneumothorax.
NERVOUS CONTROL OF BREATHING
Management control mechanisms. Nerve regulation of breathing. Her Breuer reflex. Chemical control of sensitivity. Humoral regulation of breathing: direct and indirect way. Hypoxia, hypoxic hypoxia, hypoenic hypoxia, stasis hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia, cyanosis.
Generality. Neuroendocrinology and oxytocin. Chemical messengers. Hormones: generalities, classification, functions, biosynthesis, feedback regulation, mechanism of action. Insulin and glucagon
Space as an extreme environment. Force of gravity. Microgravity. Physiological alterations in microgravity. Readjustment.