Introduction to Physics: from experiment to physical law, the experimental method. Physical quantities, units of measurement and the International System. Measurement tools, measurement errors, random and systemic errors. Absolute error and mean value, maximum dispersion and relative error. The forces, the laws of dynamics, friction, gravity, mass and weight, the center of gravity. Elastic force and Hooke''s law. Stress and deformation, Young''s modulus. Elasticity of bones, muscles and biological tissues. Balance of the material point and of the rigid body, the levers, the levers in biology. Complements of mechanics: work and energy, kinetic and potential energy, principle of conservation of mechanical energy.
Heat, propagation and transmission, heat measurement units, heat effects. Temperature, unit of measurement, thermometric scales, thermal expansion and thermal balance. The fundamental law of calorimetry, heat capacity and specific heat. The principles of Thermodynamics, the thermodynamic system, internal energy of the system.
Food energy: nutritional principles, energy and metabolism, calorie, thermal neutrality and thermoregulation. The physical states of matter, the passages of state, thermal pauses and latent heat.
Fluid mechanics: Pascal principle, Archimedes principle, Stevin''s law, atmospheric pressure, unit of pressure measurement. Medical applications: hydrostatic blood pressure. The equation of continuity and applications to the blood stream. Bernoulli''s equation, the real fluids, friction and viscosity, laminar and turbulent regime, Poiseuille''s law, Stokes'' law. Applications to the circulatory system.
Pure substances and mixtures: definitions, homogeneous and heterogeneous system, changes of state of a mixture, various methods of separation of mixtures. Applications in biology: sedimentation and centrifugation.
Transport mechanisms through membranes: diffusion and Fick''s law, filtration and osmosis. Osmotic flow and osmotic pressure. Isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic solutions. Flows through the capillaries and the Starling equation.
Surface phenomena: surface tension, liquid wettability, the Laplace equation. Some surfactants in biology, alveolar instability and the role of the surfactant. The capillarity.
The perfect gases and their laws, the kinetic theory of gases, absolute temperature, state equation of perfect gases, real gases and the Van der Waals equation. Gaseous composition of the atmosphere, gas mixtures, Dalton''s law, solubility of a gas in a liquid and Henry''s law. Breathing, gas exchange in the tissues and in the alveoli.
Electrical phenomena: properties of electric charge, electric force and electric field, electric potential energy, electric current and current intensity. First and second Ohm''s law, coupling of resistances, electrical resistance and hydrodynamics. Membrane potential.
Waves: general characteristics. Sound waves, characteristics, intensity. Acoustic pressure and acoustic impedance, resonance. Propagation of acoustic waves in the presence of obstacles. Ultrasound applications in medicine.