THE BLOOD: The main characteristics of blood, plasma proteins, red blood cells. Hemocateresis and erythropoiesis. Hemostasis and blood coagulation. Platelets, blood groups.
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: myocardial properties, cardiac cycle, cardiac output, nervous control of the heart, hints of electrocardiography, principles of hemodynamics, arteries and arterial pressure, arterioles and regulation of arteriolar diameter, transcapillary exchanges, veins and venous return, nervous control of circulation.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: respiratory mechanics, dead spaces and alveolar ventilation, alveolar gas exchanges, nervous and chemical control of breathing, blood gas transport.
RENAL SYSTEM: glomerular filtration, mechanisms of reabsorption and tubular secretion, renal clearances, mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution, kidney and regulation of salt-water balance and acid-base balance.
PHYSIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION: Transition from prepubertal phase to puberty: factors affecting the achievement of puberty. The estrous cycle: general and species-specific aspects. Folliculogenesis and endocrine control of ovulation. The corpus luteum: formation and development. Luteolysis. Endocrine control of testicular function. Actions of male sex hormones. Gametogenesis and fertilization. Spermatozoon-oocyte interaction and subsequent embryonic development. Hormonal control of pregnancy and childbirth.
Blood sampling, blood characteristics, osmosis and erythrocytes (3 hours); problem solving applied to the physiology of the heart, respiratory and renal systems (5 hours).
Introduction to the study of ethology and the influence of different areas of the CNS on animal behavior with related neurotransmitters. The Ethogram, direct and indirect observation. Imprinting, innate triggering mechanisms, the key stimuli. Learning, mechanisms of learning, association, processes and types of learning, trial and error learning, concept of reinforcement. Animal communication, the stimulus-signal, the signal and its meaning, the communicative triad: the sender, the receiver and the signal. Animal societies, agonistic interactions, prey-predator dynamics. Animal migrations. The process of domestication, the concept of animal welfare and the response of animals to stressful conditions. Specific behaviors: play, reproductive behavior, maternal behavior, social behavior Animal welfare. Behavior of the horse, cattle, sheep and goat, pig, dog and cat.
Direct observations of the posture of the animal and its center of gravity, how to approach the animal safely, restraint of the animal for biological sampling, signalling territoriality and interaction of the maternal-kin relationship with parental care, response of females to the introduction of a male into the group, competition between males for mating in polygynous species.