The Integrated Course is organized in four modules: Avian Anatomy, Avian Physiology, Avian Pathology 1 and 2. The anatomy module will deal with the general characteristics of the body of birds of species of veterinary interest. Integumentary system: plumage, skin glands, uropygium gland. Skin modifications: beak, crest, wattles, legs. Digestive system: oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus, goiter, glandular stomach, muscular stomach, intestine and related glands, cloaca. Urinary system: kidneys and ureters. Reproductive system: testes, ovaries, vas deferens and oviduct, chalcigenic chamber. Egg formation. Respiratory system: nasal cavities, trachea, syringes, lungs, air sacs, pneumatic bones and air circulation. The exercises will consist of dissections aimed at showing the anatomical characteristics of the birds.
Avian physiology will develop the functional aspects related to: the blood and cardiovascular system, the renal system and hydration mechanism, the alimentary and digestive system, the respiratory system and the different types of flight in terms of energy expenditure, the reproductive system, the deposition of the characteristics of the egg and development of the embryo, to the thermoregulation system with the characters of the main senses.
The avian pathology modules will deal with the main pathologies of bacterial, parasitic, nutritional and viral deficiencies. In particular, the main diseases present in the national territory in general and in particular regional ones as well as diseases with a high risk of introduction into our territory will be taken into consideration.