The Carbon atom. The hybridization of orbitals.
Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes: general formula, nomenclature and properties.
Aromatic compounds. Benzene and its derivatives. Aromatic heterocyclic compounds.
The compounds containing functional groups with simple bonds: alcohols, ethers, amines. Nomenclature and properties.
The carbonyl group. Aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters and amides: nomenclature and properties.
Stereochemistry. Enantiomers and racemic mixtures. Nomenclature of stereoisomers.
Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Proteins: structure and function.
Lipids: structure and function.
Nucleosides and nucleotides.
Bioenergetics. Enthalpy, Entropy, Free energy. The principles of thermodynamics. Applications to biochemical reactions.
Chemical kinetics. Enzymes. Enzymatic catalysis.
Carbohydrate metabolism. Glycolysis, citric acid cycle, respiratory chain. Citric acid pathway, gluconeogenesis, starch synthesis.