Properties of livings organisms: structure and function of biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids); the cell as a structural and functional unit of the entire organism; mono- and multi-cellular organisms. Cellular organisation: structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells; compartmentalisation of eukaryotic cells; structure and function of plasma membranes; transport mechanisms through membranes; communication between eukaryotic cells. Continuity of life: asexual and sexual reproduction; chromosomal theory of heredity; chromosomes and normal human karyotype; cell cycle and mitosis; meiosis and gametogenesis. Information flow in living matter: DNA as the repository of genetic information; the "central dogma" of biology; eukaryotic gene structure; DNA duplication; RNAs and protein synthesis; genetic code; Mendel's laws and exceptions; autosomal and sex-related traits; multifactorial inheritance. Diversity of living beings: recombination and cross over; gene, chromosome and genomic mutations. Relations between heredity and environment in determining behavior; quantitative genetics; heritability; genetic analysis of normal and pathological behavior in humans; genotype/environment correlation.