Security concepts during chemical and biochemical laboratory practice;
Concepts of general chemistry: Generality on atom and bonds; Acids and bases, pH and buffer solutions;
The carbon chemistry: Carbon atom characteristics;
Hybridization of the orbitals; General information on functional groups; Reactivity of organic compounds;
Aromaticity and aromatic compounds of biological interest;
Isomerism: various types of isomerism;
hydroxyl group: alcohols, phenols, polyols;
sulphydryl group: Thioalcohols and thiophenols;
carbonyl group: aldehydes and ketones;
carboxyl group: acids, hydroxy acids and keto acids;
Derivatives of carboxylic acids, esters, amides and nitriles;
amino group: amines
Metabolism general concepts: energy in biological systems and role of ATP, coupled reactions; metabolic pathways.
Catalysis and control of biochemical reactions: enzymes, enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, coenzymes and vitamins.
The central energy way: the citric acid cycle, electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.
Carbohydrate metabolism: glycolysis, yield of respiration, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and carbohydrate storage.
Lipid metabolism: Use and transport of fats and cholesterol, Oxidation and biosynthesis of fatty acids, triacylglycerol biosynthesis, cholesterol biosynthesis, ketone bodies, biosynthesis of volatile fatty acids in the rumen.
Amino acid metabolism: digestion of proteins; aminotransferase and transport of the amino group to the liver; production and excretion of urea, catabolism of the carbon skeleton of amino acids.
Signal transduction and metabolic regulation.
DNA structure: Three-dimensional model of the double helix, denaturation, hybridization, DNA-protein interaction, Mechanism of replication and involved enzymes, Telomeres and telomerase.
Versatility of RNA: Modified bases, Three-dimensional conformations of single stranded RNA, Classes of RNA.
The genetic information: The genetic code, Transcription, RNA polymerase, Promoter sequences, Initiation, elongation and termination of transcription, The Lac operon,
The processes of RNA modification: Eukaryotic mRNA maturation, splicing mechanisms,
Protein synthesis: RNA activation, the ribosome, the mechanism of protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Nucleic acids technology: Restriction enzymes, The Principle of PCR.