Anatomy 2. Macro- and microscopic features of the following apparatus:
- Digestive System:
Mouth: lips, cheeks, vestibulum oris, cavum oris proprium, hard and smooth palate, tongue;
Teeth: organogenesis, general morphology, structure, different types of dentition, dental formulae.
Major salivary glands: parotid, mandibular, sublingual;
Stomach (and forestomachs in Ruminants);
Rectum and anal canal;
Endocrine hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, endocrine pancreas.
- Sensory organs:
Eye: eyeball, orbital cavity, fasciae and muscles, eyelids and conjunctive, lacrimal apparatus: glands and excretory ducts;
Ear: outer, middle, inner ear; taste buds: location and structure; olfactory mucosa: location and structure.
- Nervous System:
Classification of nerve fibers (different types of sensitivity).
Central nervous system: morphology of the spinal cord and of the brain; main central nerve tracts: optic and acoustic tracts, pyramidal and extrapyramidal tracts. Structural changes from spinal cord to oblongata.
Peripheral nerve system: general organization of cranial and spinal nerves. Autonomous nerve system: orthosympathetic and parasympathetic systems: morphology and organization. Encephalic and spinal meninges. Sites of drawing of the cerebrospinal fluid and for epidural anesthesia.
Anatomy 3. Macro- and microscopic features of the following apparatus:
- Integumentary system and mammary gland;
- Urinary system (kidneys, urinary tract and bladder);
- Female reproductive system (ovary, oviduct, uterus, vagina);
- Male reproductive system (entice testicular, testis, epididymis, vas deferens, the male genital glands, penis)
Anatomy 4. Macro- and microscopic features of the following apparatus:
- The respiratory system: definition and general organization. Air ways: general characteristics and structure. Nostrils, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree. Lungs: form, general characteristics, location and structure. Main interspecific differences in respiratory organs.
- The cardiovascular system. Heart shape, general characteristics, location, structure and main interspecific differences. arterial and venous vessels: general organization of the circulation, the structure and behavior of the vessels. Main arterial and venous vessels of the body. The lymphatic system: general organization. The primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, bloodlymphnodes, tonsils. main lymphatic vessels.
Subdivision of the body into large portions through imaginary lines and planes. Stratigraphic method and projections. Common and specific characteristics of the superficial regions. Topography of the viscera with main species differences. Projection of the heart into the cardiac area, of the lungs using Vogel's lines, of the liver, stomach, spleen, intestine, kidneys, bladder, uterus and gonads. Abdominal topography changes during pregnancy. Ideal sites for subcutaneous, intramuscular and intravenous injections. Stratigraphy in the various abdominal laparotomies.