Course contents. Frontal lessons. The first lesson will be dedicated to addressing issues relating to biosecurity in practical exercises in the field and in the laboratory. Solid food intake and fluid intake. Regulation of ingestion. Chewing. Saliva. Swallowing. Esophageal transit. Gastric digestion. Digestion in the small intestine. Pancreatic juice. Bile. Digestion in the cecum and colon. Absorption processes. Motor activity of the small intestine, cecum and colon. Digestion in ruminants. Digestion of cellulose, proteins and lipids. Nitrogen ingestion. Belching. Rumination. Motor activity of the rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. Processes of absorption and metabolic fate of volatile fatty acids, protein and non-protein nitrogen and lipids. Food behavior: factors that regulate the ingestion of food. Diets rich in concentrates: rumen acidosis. Ketosis. Toxicity from ammonia, nitrate and oxalic acid. Meteorism. Physiology of nutrition in undernutrition food stress conditions. Digestion in the newborn. The liver. Plastic and energetic fate of nutrients in lactation, dryness, pregnancy and growth. Digestion in birds and fish species.
Practical activity: sampling and chemical-physical and microbiological analysis of rumen fluid in Sardinian sheep. Regarding the applied part, the student, under the supervision of the teacher, must learn the manual skills of taking the ruminal fluid and immediately its physical analysis (smell and color), chemistry (pH) and the analysis of microorganisms with an optical microscope: bacteria, protozoa and fungi.
Educational objectives of the practical exercises:
a) understand the physiological significance of the physical, chemical and microbiological variations of rumen juice as a function of nutrition and subsequent clinical diagnostics.
b) Knowing the usefulness of the examination to evaluate the effects of some therapeutic substances on the microbial activity of the rumen.
c) understand the need to have the availability of rumen juice from healthy animals to be used for the practice of transfaunation in subjects with pathologies such as dyspepsia or ketosis.
The exam will take place in person with an oral test.
a) the student expresses himself correctly in a scientific language,
b) demonstrates knowledge of the dynamics exposed,
c) associates the knowledge acquired with the other disciplines,
d) knows how to solve the questions posed by the lecturer,
e) demonstrates that he has acquired the basic knowledge of the physiology of nutrition in domestic animals for subsequent studies of nutrition, reproduction, production and clinics.
f) It is essential that they know the dynamics of energy and nitrogen metabolism in relation to the different energy demands of the reproductive and production cycle, depending on the subsequent interpretation of the metabolic profiles.