Nutritional lexicon. Meaning of the term "diet" and the importance of proper nutrition. Nutritional needs based on age, sex, physiological conditions (and in the presence of pathologies: hints).
Definition of "food" and "nutrients". From food to nutrients and hints of the digestion’s physiology of food principles and nutrients’ absorption. Review of food chemistry: macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins); micronutrients (vitamins, mineral salts); other components (alcohol, organic acids, polyphenols, etc.). The quality of proteins. Water’s role in human health and nutrition.
Chemical composition and nutritional characteristics of the main food’’s groups: meat, fish products, eggs, milk and derivatives, cereals and derivatives, legumes, seasoning oils and fats, fruit and vegetables. Water and drinks. The optimal diet: LARN, daily distribution of nutrients and standard portions. Guidelines for a healthy diet. Nutritional models: The Italian food pyramid, the Mediterranean diet, the USA MyPlate, the double pyramid (food and environmental).
Primary and secondary malnutrition: by defect (under-nutrition), by excess (over-nourishment). The “diseases of well-being”. The five colors of well-being. EBD: eating’s behavior disorders. Hints on diet therapy (nutrition as a tool for treatment). Study of the spread of malnutrition phenomena due to excess / lack in the world. Role of the main international reference bodies (FAO / WHO / UN).
Food allergies and intolerances. Dietetic products and foods aimed at specific consumers (celiac, lactose intolerant, etc.). Allergens, toxic substances, evaluation of acute and chronic toxicity.
Novel food. Nutraceuticals: functional foods, food supplements, prebiotics and probiotics, dietary fiber and its benefits. Evolution of eating habits and Globalization.