The water status of the plant: the water potential and its components and the relative water content (RWC). The flow of water in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Control of foliar transpiration: stomatal resistance, deficit of saturation of the atmosphere, net radiation and wind. Instruments and methods for measuring the water status of the plant.
The water status of the soil: the water potential and its components, measurements of the water content, relationship between water potential and water content. The flow of water in the soil: the water conductivity of the soil. Evapotranspiration: evapotranspiration of the reference crop (ET0), maximum evapotranspiration of a crop (ETc *), evapotranspiration of a crop grown in conditions of limited water availability. Models for the estimation of evaporation from the soil (Es) and from the leaf cover (Ep). Resistance in the flow of water from the soil to the atmosphere: resistance in the soil (water conductivity and morpho-physiological characteristics of the root system), plant resistance (stomatal conductivity and leaf surface). Agronomic technique for the control of the evapotranspiration of a crop.
Analysis of crop production in conditions of limiting water availability through identity: Yield = Transpired water (T) x Efficiency in water use (W.U.E.) x Collection index (H.I.). Effect of the environment, of the cultivated species and of the agronomic technique on transpiration and efficiency in the use of water. The soil water balance. The contribution of capillary rise to the water available to the crop and calculation of useful rainfall by the method of the number of curves (CN) of the American Soil Conservation System. Calculation of the watering volume and the time of irrigation intervention.
The quality of water for irrigation in relation to its effect: on the salinity of the soil, the availability of water for the plant, the permeability of the soil and the toxicity of the ions present for the plant. Effects of soil salinity on crop production. Calculation of the leaching requirement.Description of the main irrigation methods: flow, sprinkling and micro-flow. Evaluation of irrigation methods based on the characteristics of the soil, crop and quality of the irrigation water.
The structure of rainfed and irrigated agricultural systems: environmental and agronomic component. Issues.
Modeling of crop water use: the AquaCrop model. Case studies: effect of climate, cultivated species and agronomic management.