Introducing aspects and basic principles – Food alterations. Water activity.
Food stabilisation with heat application – D, z e F parameters. Sterilisation and pasteurisation: plants, time calculation with general and method formula. Effects on foods. Blanching. Baking. Toasting. Frying.
Food stabilisation with removal or block of constitutive water– Concentration operations: direct osmosis, inverse osmosis, ultra-filtration, evaporation, freeze-concentration. Drying. Freeze-Drying. Freezing.
Mechanical separation: centrifugation, filtration, sedimentation, squeezing.
ize reduction operations:
Types of size reduction operations, Size reduction of soft tissue materials. Cutting.
Packaging: purposes, main material characteristics, types of packaging, MOCA regulations.