1. INTRODUCTION. Typologies and classification of forage crops. Utilization modalities. Forage systems and forage chains.
2. ANNUAL FORAGE CROPS. Role in the forage systems. Classification. The forage cereals: oats, barley, triticale, maize. Legumes: vetch, annual clovers, Italian ryegrass.
3. PASTURE. Definitions and classification. The pasture improvement techniques. Sowing pasture species. The Mediterranean pasture species.
4. MOWN AND MOWN and GRAZED GRASSLANDS. Definitions and classification. Role in the forage systems. Establishment and management. The perennial grasses: Dactylis, Festuca. Perennial legumes: Alfalfa, white clover, red clover, sulla.
5. Elements of forage systems planning. Methodologies to quantify the stocking rate. Analysis of the vegetation and of the grassland productivity. Pastoral value.
6. Agro-silvopastoral systems.