Introduction to analytical approach for qualitative and quantitative determinations of chemical species. Laboratory glassware. Solutions: description, methods of preparation and expressions of concentrations. Chemical equilibrium. Equilibrium costants in concentrations and thermodynamic costants. Relevant chemical equilibria and their constants: ionic water product, solubility product, acid-base, complessometric and redox equilibria. Ionic strength, activity and activity coefficients. Multiple equilibria in solution. Volumetric analysis: fundamentals, features and applications (precipitation, acid-base, complessometric and redox titrations).Fundamentals of evaluation of analytical data: errors in experimental measures and their expressions; error propagation; significant figures; main statistical parameters (Student's t, Dixon's Q, Fisher's F); significance tests.
Calibration methods in instrumental analysis. Sensitivity of an analytical method; detection and quantification limits; dynamic and linear dynamic ranges. Conductivity: conductivity measurements and factors influencing it; equivalent conductivity; direct and indirect conductivity measurements.