Amino acid catabolism: dietary protein degradation. Intracellular protein degradation. Metabolic steps and regulation of amino acid catabolism. Lipid anabolism: biosynthesis of fatty acids. Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols and glycerophospholipids. Biosynthesis of cholesterol. Lipoproteins and lipid transport. Triacylglycerol cycle. Glyceroneogenesis. Metabolic specialization of organs: liver, brain, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, red blood cells. Biosignaling: signal transduction systems (general information). Classification of chemical messengers. Molecular mechanisms of signal transduction. Gated ion channels. Receptor enzymes. G protein-coupled receptors and second messengers. Sensory transduction: the visual system. Hormonal regulation and integration of energy metabolism in mammals. Pancreatic secretion of insulin. Regulation between pancreatic α and β cells. Insulin signaling. Effects of insulin on glucose and lipid metabolism. Effects of glucagon and adrenaline on glucose and lipid metabolism. Interrelationships and metabolic adaptations in the major physiological states (feeding, fasting, muscle mechanical work). Metabolic homeostasis: energy metabolism and appetite control. Leptin/insulin additive role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Metabolic alterations in pathological conditions: Leptin signaling defects: metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic changes in diabetes. Role of oral hypoglycemic agents in the management of type 2 diabetes. Metabolic consequences of alcohol abuse. Laboratory activities: Molecular analysis in the diagnosis and study of some genetic diseases.