Dog breeds: classification and description of the 10 groups according to ENCI (8h); morphological and character description of the main feline breeds (2h). Bovine species: origins and evolution; consistency and distribution of the Italian and world bovine herd; the main Italian and foreign dairy and meat breeds, with dual and triple aptitudes (4h). Sheep and goat species: origins and evolution; morphological differences at the basis of production differentiation, main Italian and foreign breeds, consistency and distribution of the Italian and world sheep herd (2h). Swine species: origins and evolution, morphological characters and racial differences, main Italian and foreign breeds, consistency and distribution of the Italian pig herd (2h). Equine and donkey species: origins and evolution of the horse and donkey, classification by morphological criteria, main Italian and foreign breeds (2h). Biotechnologies related to the improvement and control of reproductive activity in animals of zootechnical interest, sexing of embryos and spermatozoa (2h).
Practices: morphological and functional evaluation in livestocks (3h) and pets (3h); online data base search for breeds’ information, for individual traits in StudBooks recordings (3h); 2h/student shift in VTH, aimed at recognize breed and coat colours and pattern in dogs and cats.
Genetic Improvement: Basics of basic genetics: the genome of animals of zootechnical interest, uses of coding and non-coding DNA in the zootechnical field; kinship testing, DNA fingerprinting; cytoplasmic inheritance (2h). Quantitative and qualitative traits; genetic and environmental variability; genetic polymorphism; allele and genotypic frequencies; heterosis and hybrid vigor; interaction between genes: additive genetic effects, modifier genes, epistatic genes, suppressor genes, lethal genes, sublethal genes (2h). Genetic evaluation of the reproducers, selection index, heritability, selection schemes (2h). Genetic tests: pedigree index, performance test, progeny test, sib test, animal model (2h). Feline genetics: genes involved in external characteristics; recognition and identification of hereditary diseases, elimination strategies from selected populations; systems of identification, importance and functions of the feline Pedigree (3h). Canine genetics: genetics of colors and external characteristics, major genes that act on phenotypic characters; the "genetic mistreatment", consequences of excessive selective drive and genetic isolation; identification of problems and strategies for reducing the incidence of genetic diseases; identification and pedigree systems (3h). Genetic improvement in the bovine species: selection in dairy and beef cattle: herd books, national, regional, and provincial associations responsible for the control and collection of data, selective schemes and tools (2h). Genetic improvement in sheep: selection schemes and objectives in Sardinian sheep (2h). Genetic improvement in pigs: schemes and objectives for the selection of the butchery pig and the charcuterie pig (2h). Genetic improvement in the equine species: selection and improvement strategies of the sport horse. The meat horse: selection and improvement strategies, the example of CAITPR in Italy (2h).
Practices: the application of molecular biology to the genetic improvement: PCR technique aimed to the isolation and amplification of a candidate gene from DNA; electrophoretic run on an agarose gel to analyze PCR results (3h); evaluation of a candidate breeder in bovine and equine specie, with linear form (3h); visit and activities in dairy sheep genetic center (3h); 2h/student shift in VTH, aimed at analyze the identification methods (microchip reading and tracking) and pedigree analyses in dogs and cats.