Frontal lessons: The first lesson will be dedicated to biosecurity in practical exercises in the field and in the laboratory.
Physiology module B
The nervous system: origin of the electrical impulse; the action potential; jumping management; the synapses, transmission of the nerve impulse; post-synaptic potentials; components and mechanism of action of a reflex arc; the sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system; the sense organs.
Muscle tissue: notes on muscle fibers, molecular mechanism of contraction; muscle metabolism, energy sources and metabolic pathways; classification of muscle fibers (fast and slow fibers); muscle contracture; rigor mortis, causes of onset and resolution; differences between skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle cells. Motor control, the pyramidal pathways ed
extrapyramidal. Proprioception, vestibular sensitivity and the cerebellum. The regulation of muscle tone, posture and movement.
Thermoregulation: Basal metabolism and its variations according to the physiological stages; homeotherms and pecilotherms, regulation of body temperature; behavioral and hormonal regulation of thermoregulation; adaptation to heat and cold.
Physiology of lactation: mammogenesis; lactogenesis; galactopoiesis in ruminants and monogastrics, maintenance of lactation and lactation curves; milk ejection; the control of milk secretion; composition of colostrum and milk
- Main physiological parameters of milk: smell, color, density, pH, acid precipitation of proteins (3 hours x 3 groups);
- Detection of the main reflexes and body temperature in different physiological stages (2 hours x 3 groups);
- Milk ejection during sucking and milking (2 hours x 3 groups);
Classification and mechanism of action of hormones; hormone receptors; hypothalamic releasing hormones; the pituitary gland - relations with the hypothalamus; the epiphysis and role in reproductive seasonality; the thyroid gland; the ovary, endocrine events in the ovarian cycle; the testicle; the adrenal cortex; the adrenal medulla; the stress; the endocrine pancreas; calcium-regulatory hormones; gastrointestinal hormones; endocrine control of physiological activities: puberty, reproduction, pregnancy and lactation.
Determination of hormonal rates with the ELISA method (2 hours x 3 groups);
Methods for induction and synchronization of ovarian activity (3 hours x 3 groups);
Nutrition Physiology Module
Solid food intake and fluid intake. Regulation of ingestion. Chewing. Saliva. Swallowing. Esophageal transit. Gastric digestion. Digestion in the small intestine. Pancreatic juice. Bile. Digestion in the cecum and colon. Absorption processes. Motor activity of the intestine. Digestion in ruminants. Digestion of cellulose, proteins and lipids. Nitrogen ingestion. Belching. Rumination. Motor activity of the rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. Absorption and metabolic fate of volatile fatty acids, protein and non-protein nitrogen and lipids. Food behavior: factors that regulate the ingestion of food. Diets rich in concentrates: rumen acidosis. Ketosis. Toxicity from ammonia, nitrate and oxalic acid. Meteorism. Physiology of nutrition in conditions of undernutrition food stress. Digestion in the newborn. The liver. Plastic and energetic destiny of nutrients in lactation, dryness, pregnancy and growth. Digestion in birds and fish species.
Practical activity: sampling and chemical-physical and microbiological analysis of rumen fluid in Sardinian sheep (3 hours for 4 groups of students).