Factors affecting the toxicity of substances; exposure to toxic substances. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and adverse effects of drugs and toxic substances. Heavy metals. Aluminum, chromium, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, mercury, lead, arsenic. Inorganic compounds. Cyanide, cyanogenic glycosides. Carbon monoxide. Hydrocarbons. Alkanes and cycloalkanes. Ethylene, ethylene oxide, glyoxylic acid, ethylene dibromide, 1,3-butadiene. Benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, naphthalene, benzo (a) pyrene. Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Anesthetics. Isoflurane, halothane, methoxyflurane. Chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Injectable anesthetics. Ketamine. Cannabis, Opiates, Ephedrine and designer drugs, doping substances, Xanthines.