Classification on the basis of anatomic site of bleeding.
Causes of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding.
Main clinical manifestations on the basis of site of bleeding.
Clinical and instrumental diagnostic procedure.
Role of therapeutic endoscopic procedures.
Benign disease of the esophagus:
dyskinesia, achalasia, diverticula.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: symptoms and natural history;
clinical and instrumental diagnosis.
The acute abdomen:
Causes of acute abdomen: the occlusive syndromes, peritoneal syndromes, ischemic syndromes.
Main causes of obstructive jaundice.
Endoscopic and surgical treatment of obstructive jaundice.
Cholelithiasis: definition, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and surgical treatment.