Introduction and roots of the concept of ecosystems ecology. Population, community and ecosystems ecology. Modern concept of the ecosystem. Primary structural and functional attributes. States of ecosystem. Stability. Resilience. Resistance. Persistence. Elasticity. Amplitude. Hysteresis. Malleability. Buffering capacity of ecosystems and factors. Links between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being. Health of ecosystems. Importance of interdisciplinary research in the ecosystem approach. Ecosystem-based management. Operational definition. Conceptual tools. Discussion of examples. The social and economic problems of ecosystem-based management.
Limnology: lotic and lentic environments. Natural and artificial lakes, rivers, transitional and coastal marine ecosystems.
The water cycle and anthropogenic influences.
Physical and chemical characters, biotic structure and productivity in aquatic environments.
Pollution and eutrophication: monitoring, classification, causes, consequences, remedies.
Integrated management of aquatic ecosystems. Ecosystemic approach. Continuity and linkage of environments: waterbody - watershed.
Theoretical and experimental nutrient loads, methodological evaluation, OECD method and other predictive models of water quality. Biological indicators.
Issues related to phytoplankton development in the use of water.