Atoms electronic structure – The atom. The Bohr model and its limitations. Wave/particle dualism. Quantum mechanics and atomic orbitals. Quantum numbers. Electronic spin and the Pauli exclusion principle. Electronic configuration. The Hund rule. The aufbau principle
The periodic table – Groups and periods. The internal electrons shield. Periodic properties. Atom radius . Ionizzazon energy. Electronic affinity.
From atoms to molecules – The atomic weight. What’s a molecule. Pure substances and mixtures. The molecular weight. The molecular formula. The mole
The chemical bond – Covalent bond and the orbital overlap. Electronegativity. Ionic bond. Other electrostsatic bonds intermolecular forces. Hydrogen bond. Lewis structure and the octette rule. Electron valence. Resonance. Resonance in benzene. Octette rule exceptions. Hybridization. The VSEPR model. Bond angles. Molecules shape and polarity. Free orbitals.
Chemical reaction – Chemical equation. Reaction balance. Limiting reagent. Reaction yield. The Redox reactions. Solutions stoichiometry: Solutions concentrations: molarity, molality, weigth percentage, molar fraction, part per million. Solution dilution.
Molecule classification – oxides and anhydrides: nomenclature. Acid and bases: definition. Polyprotic acids. Salts: nomenclature.
Phases of matter – Gas laws. Boyle law. Charles law. Avogadro law. Dalton law. Gas status equation. Gas density. Gas volumes in the chemical reactions. Vapoure pressure. Phase Transition. Vapoure pressure and boiling point. The liquid phase. Evaporation.. Solid phase. Ionic solids, covalent solids, molecular solids. Metals. Semiconductor. One component systems. Water phase diagram
Aqueous solutions – Solvent-solute interaction. Pressure effect. Temperature effect. Electrolttic properties. Ionic compounds. Molecular compounds. Stong and weak electrolytes. Equilibrium constant.. Equilibrium concentrations calculation. The Le Chatelier principle. Precipitation reaction. Ionic equation. Acid-base reactions. Water ionic product. pH.. Neutralization and salts. Hydrolisis. Buffer solutions. Buffer solution pH. Colligative properties: vapour pressure lowering, boiling point rise , freezing point lowering, osmotic pressure.
Thermodynamics – The first principle. U and H. Thermochemistry. The Hess law. The second prnciple. Free energy. Clausius-Clayperon equation. Chemical reaction spontaneity.
Kinetics – Reaction kinetics. Parameters influencing the kinetics of a reaction. Activation energy. Catalytic and photochemical processes.