Introduction and Main Terminology
Premedication: generalities, phenothiazines, alpha 2 agonists, benzodiazepines, opioids, butyrophenones, atropine.
Induction: generality, thiopental, propofol, dissociative anesthetics, alfaxalone.
Intubation: general information, laryngoscope and endotracheal tubes, laryngeal mask, errors and complications, species differences.
Maintaining general anesthesia: general information, inhalation anesthetics (isofluorane, sevofluorane, desfluorane).
Totally intravenous anesthesia (TIVA); Partially intravenous anesthesia (PIVA).
Neuromuscular blockers: generalities and main drugs.
Anesthesia monitoring: clinical monitoring, electrocardiography, pulse oximetry, arterial pressure, capnography, body temperature.
Anesthesiological complications and their management.
Effects and use of vasoactive amines.
Hydroelectrolyte balance, infusion therapy and outline of blood gas analysis.
Anesthesia equipment and appliances: gas supply systems and hospital circuits, gas cylinders, safety in the operating room, exhaust gas evacuation circuits, anesthesia devices, vaporizers, breathing circuits, infusion pump.
Physiology of pain. Acute pain, chronic pain and neuropathic pain, pain therapy.
Local regional anesthesia and analgesia and local anesthetics (lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, ropivacaine)
Anesthesia in dogs and cats.
Anesthesia in the horse.
Income animal anesthesia.
Elements of anesthesia in wild and unconventional animals. Physiology of pain. Acute pain, chronic pain and neuropathic pain, pain therapy.
Local regional anesthesia and analgesia and local anesthetics (lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, ropivacaine).