Elements of plant citology. Membranes, nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, cytoskeleton. Cell wall and its modifications. Plasmodesmata. Plastids. Vacuole.
Primary and secondary meristems. Parenchymatic, tegumental, mechanical, conductive and secretory tissues.
Primary and secondary structure of stems, leaves and roots with their modifications.
Elements of bioenergetics. Chemical and electrochemical potential. Light and the activity of photosynthetic pigments. Photosynthetic transport of electrons and Photophosphorylation. Calvin cycle. Photorespiration. Plants C4 and CAM. Translocation of organic compounds.
Physical and chemical properties of water. Water potential and water trasport in plants.
PLANT BIODIVERSITY. ORGANISATION LEVELS (thallus and cormus).
ALGAE. Generalities, thallus organization, main evolution lines, life cycles and reproduction.
FUNGI. Main characteristics of the terrestrial fungi and their relations to plants (mycorrhizae). LICHENES. Main characteristics, morphology and ecology.
BRYOPHYTES. Generalities, evolution, morphology, reproduction, life cycle.
PTERIDOPHYTES. Generalities, evolution, morphology, reproduction, life cycles.
SPERMATOPHYTES. Ovule and seed. Main characteristics, morphology, reproduction, evolution and life cicles of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Angiosperms taxonomy.