Peculiarities of plants and plant cells.
Membrane physiology. Chemical and Electrochemical Potential. Proton-motive Force.
Physical and chemical properties of water. Water potential. Water uptake and transport in plants.
Photosynthesis. Photosynthetic pigments. Photosynthetic electron transport and photophosphorylation. Calvin cycle and its regulation. Photorespiration and C4 and CAM plants.
Respiratory metabolism in plants.
Nitrogen assimilation. Assimilative reduction of nitrates. Biological nitrogen fixation and symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Plant ormones: auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid.