Introduction to botany history. Cytology, morphology, anatomy and function of plants in the environment. Plant cell plastids, cell wall, vacuole, differentiation, plant tissues. Morphology and structure of stem, leaf, root and their functions. Modification of the organs and ecological adaptations. Analogy and homology in the transformed organs.
Reproduction of plants and the biological cycle. Kinds and systems of reproduction in the different taxonomic groups. Morphology of the reproductive structures, flower, gametes, ovary, fruit, seed. Floral biology, pollination and fertilization. Apomixis. Dispersion of the fruit and seed. Biological cycles in the different plant groups
Principles and methods of the Systematic Botany
The plant biodiversity. Classification systems and taxonomic categories. Species concept: typological species, biological evolution. Biparental and uniparental species. Agamospecie. Upper and lower taxa. Individual, clone, population, cultivar, variety, subspecies, species, genus, family, order, class, division, kingdom. The major groups of the plant world. Essential overview about Bacteria, Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes.
The major groups of vascular plants
Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms (Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons). The native and alien flora. Biological forms and biological spectrum. Areal and chorologycal types. Centers of origin of cultivated plants.
Main families of agricultural, forestry and economic development.
Pinaceae, Cupressaceae, Fagaceae, Salicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cistaceae, Geraniaceae, Oleaceae, Asteraceae, Gramineae, Arecaceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Orchidaceae.
Laboratory of General Botany
Preparation of tissues: cell types, stem, root, leaf.
Analysis, description and recognition of stem, root and leaf modified.
Recognition and determination of families, genera and species using analytical keys and herbarium preparation.