Matter, atoms and molecules.
The atom. Subatomic particles. Atomic models. The quantum numbers. Orbitals. The Pauli exclusion principle. The Aufbau. Electronic configurations of the elements.
The Periodic Table.
Periodic properties of elements. The octet rule.
The chemical bond.
The covalent bond. The ionic, dative, metallic, and hydrogen bonds. Single and multiple bonds. The orbitals hybridization. Resonance. The molecules. Atomic weight and molecular weight. The mole.
Aqueous solutions of ionic and molecular solids. Expression of concentration. Colligative properties.
Physical changes of matter.
The matter states: gas, liquid and solid. The gaseous state: ideal and real gas.
The chemical reactions.
Concepts and general principles; balancing. Elements of Chemical Thermodynamics. Elements of Chemical Kinetics. Without electron transfer reactions. Redox reactions.
The chemical equilibrium.
Reactions at equilibrium. Mass action law. Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria.
Equilibria in aqueous solution.
Water dissociation and pH. Acids and bases according to Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry and Lewis. Strength of acids and bases (Ka and Kb). pH calculation of aqueous solutions of acids and bases. Hydrolysis. Buffer solutions. Titration curves. pH indicators.
Formation of a precipitate. Solubility and solubility product (Kps).